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"Enameling" : Mina Kari



Art enamel is derived from the essence

of humanity and impregnated with the Iranian multi-thousand-year-old culture, which is considered to be its birthplace in Isfahan. This five thousand-year-old art can be found in a series of kings including the Hakhamshans. In the creation of this beautiful art, they use designs on metal surfaces such as copper, gold, silver and today's copper. The above is seen as the art of pug; the design is made with colors that are cooked in a furnace at a temperature of 750 ° C, while before reaching this stage, a long path extends from tear to stubble and glaze and furnace The most used applications of this beautiful art can be to make boxes, plates, pots, mirrors, etc. Among them, the production of enamel dishes is more than other items.

History: Pug or art mintage, which has a history of about five thousand years, and its invention dates back to the Sassanian era. In the past, enamel has been used for a variety of purposes such as jewelery, boxes and dishes (such as plates and gadgets and the Donate Cup ...). But these jewelry and containers were used exclusively for the use of court and aristocratic families. Because most of the punnies were made on metals such as gold and rice, which were priced very high.

Pug types

The enamel is divided into three types by design type:

Home-made enamel (Tapestry enamel)

Embossed Enamel (Engraving)

Painting enamel

Fields and colors

The field of pumice is currently copper in most workshops. In some cases, rice is also used. It is noteworthy that some jewelry manufacturers also use pearls made of silver and gold. The colors used in the pug are mostly inorganic and vocabulary

Colors and motifs

Traditional pearls are used in pearls such as slamy, khatai, flowers and chicken and their composition. Whatever the design is more elegant and more colorful, it will have a material value. Sometimes, sometimes, some of the work will be more expensive because of the use of a special color, such as some red or purple sub-collections, because gold is used to produce these colors.

What should be noted for buying pennies


Smooth surface


Designs and designs

Product ID

One of the factors to consider when buying pug is the weight of the pug. A plate, a pot, a chocolate bar, etc., that you intend to buy, should not be light. (By comparing several similar examples, you will notice the weight of each product). If the sexy pug is light, it will easily change shape and shape with a little pressure and lose its effect.

Smooth surface

Another feature of the quality of the dishes and shapes of the pug is their smooth and slick. This indicator reflects the high quality of the plywood container. There are several important reasons for the rough and dark surface of the pug. The first reason is the color of the enamel, which is used in the production process. If the professional glazing is done and used well, the enamel surface will be completely glassy and polished.


There are different colors in the art of pug, which is best to combine some of them in order to beautify it and also to fit the temperature.

Azure blue color


green color


Red purple

Turquoise color

Brown color

Black color

Golden color

But most people know the enamel in Azure and Turquoise. To prepare the red color of dissolved gold plus bracke and sodium carbonate, to prepare the green color of copper plus lead chromite and to prepare the yellow color of the iron, chromium and tin oxide and in any case for the glaze transparency. Tin oxide is used.

Designs and designs

Patterns in pins usually follow a pattern and pattern. Puppet paintings are generally made of traditional designs such as:



Chicken and Cactus

flower and bird


Sometimes the faces

Historical and religious buildings

Some of them are more labor-intensive and have some lightweight designs. Obviously, the more complicated the motifs are, the more result the work gets more material because the professor has spent more time on it.

Product ID

At all times, at all times, it creates a work of art that identifies it. If the creator or producer of a work is unclear, its material and spiritual value will certainly be reduced. The pug, which is one of the noble Iranian art of the earth, is no exception; every artwork of anonymity, here is the same art of pug, is one day copied and forgotten.


The enamel is divided into several categories in terms of manufacturing method:

Highlighting Enamel

A method is in the pug that carries the pictures and lines on the object, then the gaps that are created in this way are filled with colored glazes and placed in the furnace with sufficient heating.

Chimney enamel or housewarming

The home enamel is an old style that is also known as "wired enamel" and uses very thin wires. The wires are placed in the desired shape and applied with glue on the work piece, covered with a glass glaze. Then it is placed inside the blind at about 0001 ° C and the wires are fed to the workpiece. In the next step, the special colors of the powders, which are in powder form, fill the surface of the work. After the level of work is uniform and smooth, it is placed in a heat shroud of about 1000 degrees for 3 minutes.

The home enamel is common in Isfahan and Tehran, but it is currently the only home improvement workshop at the Cultural Heritage Institute that teaches this art. "Black Enamel" is a kind of "enamel" which is also known as the "Saiban Enamel". This pug is mainly done in the south of the country, and especially in Ahwaz.

Painting enamel

In this way, which is common today in Isfahan, the background of copper is covered with white and thick enamel and painted in enamel paints after being bake in the furnace. Painting with enamel paints is done in two ways:

The first method is to mix the colors that are very soft round, with water and a little glycerin, and dissolve it on a glass sheet or asphalt by special knuckles, then, like the usual water and paint painting, the desired role with this The colors are pictured.

The second method is that instead of mixing the enamel colors with water and glycerin, they combine it with the extract of pine ink or lavender essence and act in the manner of painting oil and paint.

Enamel art includes the use of a variety of mineral enamels for decorating and decorating metal parts and utensils. Often, under the construction of a copper enamel work, or rarely of rice, it is also done on gold in some cases to make enamel adornments. A copper infrastructure is coated in the preparation stage three times by kaolin glaze and cooked in the oven to give a completely white and uniform glaze, and then begins to paint on the ground with a white canvas. The enamel color combination is often made up of various metal oxides with a special type of clamp. After painting, the enamel effect is cooked in the furnace, depending on the color of the furnace temperature, to adjust the color to the enamel. In the past, colors of dishes and other enamel objects are used in chemical paints. Copper and yellow copper oxide is used for making pearls from golden oxide, green and blue colors. Since the Safavid era, slam plums and flowers have been abundantly used in enamel works, but today, miniature designs have also become popular in enamel. And used. In terms of infrastructure, there is a great deal of variation in enamel work and is produced in forms and for different applications of tarpaulins and enamel plaques. Pug is one of the unique arts of Isfahan, which, by combining the art of Mina with other disciplines such as goldsmiths, crocheting, presents a variety of products.

The art of copper Burnish is also from enameling that has attracted the attention of craftsmen in recent years.



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