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Engraving

 

"Engraving" : Qalam Zani

 

 

Getting to know the art of pen and its story 

This grateful and beautiful art representing the culture and civilization of the Iranian people is first seen in the form of carvings in the mountains and on the stone walls of the palaces of kings and monuments and even in the cave period. Later the art of carvings was turned into engraving and then stamped, and motifs and images were transferred to the precious stones of the buildings and the body of the trees on the precious stones, especially the agate, and it was called "Engraving".

The bracelet has a long and historic history, and one In the category of traditional Iranian arts, it is in the category of fine arts and in the metal working group.

 

The story of the art of pencil

Metals such as gold, silver, copper, rice and steel are the main fields of these graffiti and delightful lines, and the art of "graffiti" was named. In other words, creating lines and motifs by pen or hammer blow and on metal objects. This term has been used in a certain culture: "Writing, painting, and one of the fine arts, it is the creation of designs of animals and plants and designs on silver or other metals. When practicing, the master works with a metal pen or a sharp-stacked slip that has a wooden handle. The construction of metal objects is done by the two sides. At the moment, using tools and tools, three methods are used to make metal containers: one piece or seamless, multiple or seamless, using a device or bending.

 Etching

Pruning is one of the old handicrafts of Iran, which belongs to the metal working group. Pruning is, in fact, an art of decorating various roles on metal objects, especially copper, gold, silver and rice with the help of a pen and hammer blow.

Dating back to Iran

They attribute a history to the time of the Scythians or Siths who have had an Aryan race. The Hassanlu Cup of Gold, discovered in 1336, with outstanding designs such as the Gods riding on the chariot, dates back to the first millennium. The Marlit Gold Cups are also the same works of the same period.

The period of the Medes, which began in the 7th century BC in Iran, has left little trace in its effects.

With the formation of the Achaemenid rule, the art of stinging also changed and influenced the period after itself. This course is in fact the culmination of metal art, but many things were destroyed due to the Alexander invasion and the burning of the Persepolis, and they turned into Alexander coins.

In the time of the Sasanians, from 224 to 650 AD, the art of Iran was influenced by Greek and Roman art due to the expansion of trade between Iran, Greece and Rome. The most typical of this course was the tray that the Sassanids used to paint the hunting and kings' ceremonies like a gift ceremony.

In the early Islamic centuries, Arabs imitated Sassanid era art and in the following centuries, due to the interest of Iranian artists in their religion and their tendency towards Islam, with the influence of Islamic beliefs, they began to make designs of Iranian native and mythological designs. Kufi lines and verses and hadiths.

Different stubborn styles

1 Highlighting

In this type of pruning, first, the bitumen is poured on the back, then the plan is applied to the carbone, and the fixture is fixed using the cubicle pen. After fixing the design, remove the bitumen from the back, and this time cover the processed surface with beads and highlight them with pens, which consist of foam, foam, slab, and so on.

Lumbar lines on the back of the work, the guide is an engraving action. After the highlighting is done, the bitumen is restored back to the original, and during this stage the pavement is grounded.

2 Semi-highlighting

Instead of using brush strokes, they use ordinary fonts instead of highlighting the work from behind, on the other hand, they are reducing the field to the surface to be processed.

3 Elastic peel

In this method, the work is designed after bitumen and then the cobblestone and the pavement and the field that is not prominent and is used more than the designs of gladiolus and chicken.

4 Engraving

In this method, instead of using only a few pens, a single pen is used, and this pen performs a punching operation. In fact, in this type of sting, it is pulled out with a metal pencil.

5 Lattice work

In this method, instead of peeling like a pebble, or scrubbing the field like a highlight, they separate the field from the metal surface. This method has traditionally been used in the making of lantern lights and the places where water should pass through them

How to do it

slamming the somba Draw a piece of clay in a circle of coal or ink into the paper, creating the effect of the perforated sections on the surface of the work, and then start stamping.

Currently, in Esfahan, the most important center for making and pruning copper and rice, about 81 percent of dredges are self-designing and executing.

Earthing metals

Before folding, you must accumulate inside or under the object from molten tar. The bitumen should be completely intact and completely thinned after cooling, so that the pen does not fill up. To get started, first prepare the desired design, then place it on the rice groove and insert the points with the pencil To transfer the map, it is necessary to grease the desired metal surface, lay it on it, and map it with charcoal powder wrapped in a wrapped napkin. The charcoal powder passes through the hole on the map. Slip on the surface of the metal, and the design is then transposed onto the effect, then the artist begins to brush with tufted or dentin brushes.

Types of stamping

 

Pencil practices:

Outstanding style

The difference between the subject and the field is much larger than the embossment, and the artist strikes from both the back and the metal to be able to do without it.

Photo style

Shadow and line appear in the subject field. There are no superficial differences between the subject and the field.

Filling style

As the name implies, it shows the texture in the context of the original design. In this type there is also no difference in surface between the background and the design.

The manner of embellishment

By creating a maximum of two centimeters, the artist will play a role in the difference in surface between the subject and the background on the metal.

Lattice style:

Artist reveals the subject by cutting the field and separating it from the level of work.

Drawing method

The artist decorates the metal with a scratch and groove. This is done by pen. After finishing the pencil, the bitumen is heated again, and it is melted out again from the inside out. Then rinse the surface with detergents such as oil to completely remove the remaining bitumen.

Pen tool

Strapping Lines - Punching Hammer - Folders - Font Pen - Pen - Pen Tool - Pen Gadget - And Unfilled Fingers: One pencil - Your pencil - Bad mint pencil - Pen pencil - Cluster pen - Pencil flat board - Pencil rectangular flat - Pen pencil sharp pencil

Different stubborn styles

1 Highlighting

In this type of pruning, first, the bitumen is poured on the back, then the plan is applied to the carbone, and the fixture is fixed using the cubicle pen. After fixing the design, remove the bitumen from the back, and this time cover the processed surface with beads and highlight them with pens, which consist of foam, foam, slab, and so on.

Lumbar lines on the back of the work, the guide is an engraving action. After the highlighting is done, the bitumen is restored back to the original, and during this stage the pavement is grounded.

2 Semi-highlighting

Instead of using brush strokes, they use ordinary fonts instead of highlighting the work from behind, on the other hand, they are reducing the field to the surface to be processed.

3 Elastic peel

In this method, the work is designed after bitumen and then the cobblestone and the pavement and the field that is not prominent and is used more than the designs of gladiolus and chicken.

4 Engraving

In this method, instead of using only a few pens, a single pen is used, and this pen performs a punching operation. In fact, in this type of sting, it is pulled out with a metal pencil.

5 Lattice work

In this method, instead of peeling like a pebble, or scrubbing the field like a highlight, they separate the field from the metal surface. This method has traditionally been used in the manufacture of lantern lights and the places where water should pass through them.

Most of the metal products made in Iran over the past century have been made of copper, many of which are made for daily use without decoration, and the main element of their beauty is the same, but copper containers that have a more dramatic value are usually noticed. Craftsmen and artists, such as crocheting, carving and sometimes highlighting.

Esfahan has always been one of the most important centers of Iranian art and it is currently the largest number of workshops in Isfahan craftsmanship is made of copper and rice, and the number of employees in this field is higher than other disciplines.

The range of metal art in Iran is very wide; it can be mentioned as an interlocking art that includes instruments such as lanterns, sparkling lamps, copper and brass sculptures, savers, pots and bottle covers. The main raw materials used by the manufacturers of copper and rice products are copper, rice and alloys.

The artisans' tool for this field consists of two categories; a toolkit used in the manufacturing process of products such as a bending machine, ferrule, electric furnace, anvil and hammer. The other group is a tool that is needed at the stamping stage, such as a bituminous tapping machine, flame retardant, a variety of fountain pens, hammer and ...

Application of bitumen in pencil

The pencil is the decoration of crafts on metal objects, especially copper, gold, silver, rice, or in other words, the creation of lines and motifs by pen with a hammer blow and on metal objects. Imprint is one of the traditional arts in Iran that is categorized,

In the category of fine arts and in metal working group. Today, for the first pen, inside or under the container or tray, which is usually of silver or gold, they fill the solution of bitumen and plaster to lessen the noise of the pen, and also prevent the perforation of the container during operation. Then draw the desired role on the dish and select the appropriate pen and place it on the surface of the dish and hammer it at the end of the pen to create grooves and rods by varying the intensity of the impact on the dish.

 In stubble art, tufts are used in three ways:

1 Strengthen and prevent metal breakage against impact hammer and pen.

2 Reduce the noise caused by pen to metal.

3 Ease of implementation.

The following are required for the extraction of tar pitch:

Bitumen, gypsum, sieve or sieve, container or pans for heating bitumen, gas light and stove for mixing bitumen.

Stamping steps

Before writing, you must accumulate inside or under the object from the melting tar. Bitumen should be completely intact "

It has become tight after cooling. To fill the pen, do not pour. To start the work, first make the desired design, then put it on the ridge of the pit and with the punch pencil, the points of the project close to the hole.

To transfer the map, it is necessary to make the desired metal level fat. Put the map on it and draw on the map with charcoal powder wrapped in a soft cloth. The charcoal powder passes through the hole on the map and sits on the surface of the metal and thus the shape of the design passes over the effect. Then the artist starts to spin using tufted or dentin brushes.

When the container or canvas is ready, the stage of practical implementation and the laying of the design begins on the work. The implementation of the project is done in the following ways:

Rounding method: In this manner, the artist places the prepared design on a metal piece of rice and, with a hammer and punch, latches it, and pierces the lines of the design with the tip of the pen, on the rice of the pine tree, until the pollination of the design The layout lines are easily transposed onto the work, and then this paper sticks to the canvas, and with a pollen of coal in a piece of cloth, it is pinned onto paper, which moves from the paper holes, charcoal powder to the canvas, and then With a pencil, lines out the layout and begin the execution of the work.

Direct execution of the plot on the canvas: In this method, the artist moves the design directly onto the metal with a pencil or a sharp tool like a pen and pencil.

How to use paperback: This method cleans up the canvas first, removing fat and dust. Then paste the copy paper with glue on it. Next, they plot the project on a copy paper, onto a metal canvas, and draw on pencil lines to draw the design onto the canvas, then draw the pattern and the paper, and identify the lines that are not revealed with pencils. .

The method of attaching the principle of the design to the metal canvas: In this method, the original paper is drawn on an object or a metal canvas, and then, using the pencil pen, they execute the lines on the metal. After designation of the lines, the paper takes off the plot and runs the project with a pen and a hammer on the object. After transferring the design of the artist, he begins to work with a hammer and a pen and, using the techniques of stamping, designs the desired design.

Separating metal canvas from bitumen or smithing

In order to separate the bitumen from the metal canes, the bed cools and breaks down the bitumen. But in circular and potted casks, they heat and dissolve the bitumen. This is done in the following ways:

Heating method: Heat them to empty the bitumen from the potted circular oyster or geometric volumes. By placing the dish filled with bitumen upside down on a wooden or metal pallet, they heat the dish to smelt bitumen.

To be First, the craters in the container heat the mid-section and then the bottom of the container. Then they empty the bitumen that is flowing.

Bitumen Break Method: This method is used to separate bitumen from flat roofs. In the form of bitumen containing

The canvas is dipped in cold water and slowly hammered, slices bitumen and separated from the dish. Then take the metal to

The headpiece is heated to keep the remaining bitumen completely burnt and detached from the canvas. Then with oil with cloth

Wire brushes clean metal.

After clearing the bitumen to remove oil from the surface of the metal canvas, it is washed with a solution of dishwashing liquid and water and dry and pay.

How to recognize high quality pencils?

Fine pen recognition

The art of jewelery is the silvering of motifs on metal surfaces, especially copper, gold, silver, and rice, by a variety of brush strokes hammered on metal objects.

Working Style:

First, in the interior or under the container or tray that is usually made of silver, gold and copper, they are laced with bitumen and plaster to lessen the noise of the pen, and also prevent the perforation of the container during operation. Then, the desired role is drawn on the skin to the desired object. Next, select the appropriate pen and place it on the surface of the dish and hammer it at the end of the pen to make grooves and roles change with the intensity of the impact on the dish .

After creating the roots, they heat the decorated object and remove bitumen from it, and pour the pollen on the grooves, and cover the bowl with black jelly. In this way, the forged roles appear in the form of dark lines.

What issues to consider when buying dough pens?

Some dishonest people might sell people with a metal object, a canvas that has fallen into it as a stubborn art work to make more money. To prevent such a hat, you just need to take the following recommendations seriously and when Pay attention to them:

1 1. Pricing is lightweight and the device can not function on a thick sheet of copper or rice.

2. Artistic works are perfectly regular and there is no kayak in them, while hand-made work patterns are not completely uniform and in some lines it is inclining.

3. Prissy works have very regular holes and windows, but manual work, in addition to being in some cases inconspicuous, sometimes does not even have the same size.

4. Percy's work is much cheaper than manual work.

If you would like to buy a stomach object and see that its price is very cheap, consider immediately the top three items.

Now if you are sure of a handy job and want to get a good pen, consider the following issues:

1. The cut parts of the lips are turned.

2. The plate is decorated with peripheral strips, soldered from the bottom and head to head, and tangent to the edges.

3. The choice is homosexual and the lips are turned.

4. If the desired product is a bowl, the bar should be fully welded underneath the bowl and tangent to the ground with a tangent to the ground.

5. The bottom of the bowl must be completely welded and the lip of its contact with the ground should be turned.

6. Do not see the surface debris.

7. There are no napsites.

8. A suitable bowl and pitcher cube should be considered.

9. The thickness of the coil is also the thickness of the bowl.

10. If the tray is stamped, it will have a flat surface and contact with the floor.

11. If the plate is full of contact with the ground.

12.Plate should be uniformly plasticized in case of plating.

13. If the strips are homogeneous with the field, they will appear in different colors.

14. Being used is even traditional.

15. The more delicate and more sketchy it is, the more valuable it is.

16. During pruning, there is no pressure on the brushes at the level of the hole.

17. If a design is intended to repeat a role, parts are identical with a stamina.

18. After the end of the work, the object is more accurately paid and there is no trace of bitumen up to the levels.

For pruning, first cover the back of the surface that is to be stamped with bitumen so that the dish during the stamping stage is not hammered by the impact of the hammer blow and the stroke pressure and preventing excessive noise. For this operation, ie, taring on the back, smelt solid bitumen in a bitumen melting furnace. Then the melted bitumen is applied to the layer to form a relatively thick layer. After cooing the container, drain the white space to the drawing area for drawing. The slurry is just to make pencil drawing lines more visible. The design of stingrain designs, which is mostly inspired by traditional designs, is done in a number of ways: drawing a design by a person who is skilled in drawing also directly on the desired surface, drawing on the paper and drawing the main lines, then by

 

 

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