"Inlying" : Khatam-kari
Familiarity with the art of :
Definition of Khatam-kari in the Persian Encyclopedia is:” The art of decorating objects in a mosaic like shapes with small triangles. Various Khatam pattern have always been in regular geometric shapes. These geometric shapes are formed by placing small triangles next to each other. Artists make triangles from wood, metal and bone. Whatever the triangles are smaller and more elegant, Khatam becomes more qualitative. At least three triangles are used to construct the smallest geometric unit in a Khatam pattern, and for the largest one, there are maximum of four hundred triangles.
It was probably that the kings that were kings were made of wood or bone, and their name or nickname was written with pieces of wood and bone, which today is called the art of mosaic of wood or chatem.
What's your job The art of mosaic is the wood that has been given to this art.
In this case, like many other handicrafts, there is no specific date since its invention. Even those legends are widely known as the miracles of Abraham. Khatam has existed in pre-Islamic Iran, but in its present form it has spread since the Mongol Ilkhan and the establishment of relations with Far Eastern countries in Iran.
Khatam's art, other than Iran, has spread to countries like India, Syria, Iraq and Palestine. But what today is known as Khatam is the one that is made in the centers of Iranian culture such as Isfahan and Shiraz.
This art reached its peak, like many other arts during the Safavid era and due to the artistic support of Shah Abbas. It's in decorations in the window and the table, and so on. Used. Now the oldest object that is decorated with Khatam is a thousand-year-old cartoon that is available in the Shi'aq-e-Ayatollah Mosque.
Construction of Khatam has different stages, and the person to work must be familiar with various tools and carpentry techniques. In the preparation of raw materials, different types of wood, such as ebony, betel, walnut, conifer, jujube, orange, whole and small, and various types of bones such as bone and ivory, camel bones and horse bones are required. Tools like metal wires, hammers, saws, gravels, wood gluing and rigging are also used.
In the preparation of Khatam, at first, they take the materials needed, such as wood and bone types, in very small geometric dimensions, and with copper or aluminum wires, they bring them together in different geometric shapes. After working out and sticking together by his series, the master builds these shapes together on the desired level.
There are several types of material in the following:
Various materials are used to produce craft products:
• Kinds of wood like ebony, betel, condiment, jujube, orange, maple, kikam, tabriz and shamshad
• Types of bone and ivory, such as ivory, camel bone, cow bone and horse bone
• Types of metal wires such as brass, silver and sometimes gold wire
• My series
In the following, we will mention the characteristics and properties of each of these materials and their application.
This type of wood was used in the past to produce black triangles. This wood has a significant strength and is therefore rare and expensive on the market.
This wood is mostly made from India, which is currently rarely used by the costumers due to its high value.
Although graders have gradually shifted to the bean wood, which is used for dark and dark browns and more on the margins of the beads, due to the cost and shortage of ebony wood, but nowadays, since this type of wood is also found in India, and Inside the country is scarce, there is no significant application in commissioning. In addition, contractors are willing to use this type of wood, mostly from an old chair and chair made of betel wood.
Now most of the casters use walnut woods to make black triangles, which, after cutting the triangles, make them black with chemical colors.
The peeled wood has a natural red color, and is more solid than the same type. According to these characteristics, in the past, the clerks used grinding wood to make red triangles, but this wood is also rare and expensive at the moment, and is found in India.
Nowadays, this type of wood is somewhat substitute for the wood, and instead of using the wood, it uses the jujube wood, which is a reddish brown, which is mostly found in Khorasan and Shiraz and around it, Yazd and its surroundings, Qom and Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiari is found. The jujube wood is often reddish in synthetic and chemical colors.
Ornate wood is mostly found in the provinces of Fars and Mazandaran. This type of wood is light brown in color, after cutting the triangles, it is used in synthetic and chemical colors in red, yellow or black colors, and they are used in chocolate.
The natural color is brown, and after cutting the triangles, it brushes it with synthetic and chemical colors in red or yellow.
I use a stick from a stick in the form that first creates a groove in the form of a triangle and uses it to rub the triangles and the arms of the lashes. That is, they actually cut the triangles inside this triangular groove and straighten it around the triangles and then polish it. In fact, they use this stick to pour the triangular molds and the lashes.
Tabrizi or Kebeda wood:
The back of the quilt, in fact, is its linen, made of this very soft, white wood. The diameter of the liners is about one millimeter. With a saw, they create a narrow groove in the linen to give it a more lenient shape, and a better builder can get the ready-made crochet in whatever shape it's intended to fit onto the objects.
Shamshad wood has a lot of strength and its natural color is yellow. This wood is found in the lush green forest of Mazandaran.
More natural ivory is found in India and the continent of Africa, and the former was used to produce white in Khatam, but now it is less expensive in Khatam due to its high cost. In addition, dentin is still used in the first class because of the beauty and strength it gives to Khatam. For this purpose, the dentin that is cylindrical is in the middle of the two parts and takes from each half of the layers 2 to 3 mm in thickness, and then forms it in the form of different triangles. Currently, most dental implants use artificial dentin.
The natural color of the bone is white camel and uses it to produce different triangles and colors it in different colors. How to use the camel's bone is that after removing the eight camel pens, they are cleaned and cleaned with lime water and placed in lime water for six months to remove bulk and bone fat, so that the bone Be completely white. Then it is thrown with special teas and then it takes triangles and layers that are used in the quarts next to wood and other metals. The camel's bone is either used as a natural color in the crochet, or green in color with chemical paints.
The natural bone is a white horse. It also brings a bunch of colors to a variety of colors, especially green, and mixes it with another triangle.
Because the horse's bone is more color-tolerant than camel's bone, its use is more common. Today, in addition to the bone of the camel and bone of the horse, it is also used from cattle bones, which is more available.
In order to prepare a golden yellow color, they use rice. Of course, in the past rarely gold has been used in Khatam. In some types of bracelets, silver and sometimes aluminum are used. To make the triangle, brass wire is used for golden yellow and silver beads are used for shiny white. In the past, for the preparation of wire triangles, by means of a device called Hodayde, it was shaped into a three-way form.
And on a hinged knife with a special hammer on it to prepare the desired wire for embedding in Khatam, but now the triangular shapes are used to form triangles.
After the triangles have been rolled out, the triangles of the triangles are ready to be set at a certain size, and placed in the grooves of the stick of the bowl, then the wires are soured and shiny. In the past, costumers used copper for the golden yellow color, which, of course, does not have a stable color and does not have the strength to do this.
Currently, most of the painters use brass wire to supply yellow gold, which, of course, does not have enough color saturation.
The use of oysters in the sachet makes it more beautiful and adds to the quality of the crochet, but nowadays it is less used due to its high cost and its scarcity. Oysters are supplied by suppliers from Gulf ports and the Gulf of Oman and are now used to provide shiny white gloss in premium grade and premium.
Flint: In order to wrap triangles, blades and flowers are used in various threads of different thicknesses, the most famous and most commonly used is a thread called perc.
In order to paste the crochet on the containers and various objects, the adhesive is used. This glue should be heated only when heated, because it reduces its adhesion. To warm the adhesive, place it in a double-sided container. In the first wall, the dish is heated and the adhesive in the second wall is liquid and does not burn or burn. In the sealing industry, another adhesive is also used, called white adhesive, and is used in cold form. A white glue that has a lot of strength and durability is naturally made from gum, and is used to attach the bones that are placed in the corners of the containers and products.
After completing the seal and attach it to the objects, they will polish the surface of the crochet and polish, and then cover the crochet with a special sieve in three turns. The important point at this stage is that the sticks should be equally aligned on the entire surface of the products, in order not to create bumps and dents at its surface, and not to diminish its beauty and quality. It should also be carried out in a place indoors and away from dust, so that the suspended particles in the air do not sit on the surface of the silt objects. Unplaced surfaces such as the back of the frame and inside the box, etc., should be tightened and thrown up after grinding and polishing. However, all the surfaces of the quill and the surfaces that remain in the form of wood should be covered from the screen so as not to penetrate any point of that moisture into the object. Nowadays, many Khatamzazians instead of electricians in this way, cover Khatam products with a kind of jelly called Polister, which is a glass-like and non-burning material.
Tools and Tools:
The tools used in the production of quartz include saw, press, various types of wood, hammer, sowhand, grasshopper, gravel, dye dyeing, brush, scissors for cutting brass wire, pliers, dummies, screwdrivers and rubbers. In some workshops, they also use Cutting Machine, which increases the efficiency of work. Other tools are the installation of a rolling wire, which brings metal wires into triangular prisms. Another board is a slab or prism, with flat beds, and there is a slab in the form of a charter of the al-Qaeda triangle.
The stages of production of Khatam
Khatam is one of the traditional arts, which requires a lot of precision and tolerance to make it. Making Khatam involves various stages of stringing "El" to payment of Khatam.
In order to create a grate, first, the project of the problem that is to be drawn is drawn by the master, and these wooden, bone and metal triangles with the hands of the skilful and skillful artist are put together by his hand and fastened and secured by the thread of the thread. The term "blade" works.
At this stage, three equal parts of the algebra will be aligned with another triangle to form a larger triangle.
• Convert "L" to thin strings:
This is done through the saw. After cutting "L", put the strings inside a groove called "Tangs of the Sub-Triangle"
And they are striving to make the strings uniform.
• Cut and string (make a "l" (:
"L" refers to sheets of thickness from one to three millimeters, which is obtained by cutting pieces of wood. These sheets are placed on top.
• Six Screws:
The sum of six triangles is said to be next to each other, its base is to the outside and its head is to the inside.
At this stage, four blades are placed together. Your throat is mostly used among the flowers of Khatam. ) After a few hours, the thread is opened and the subject is subjected to a sintered design, and four of the blades are put together and re-bonded with glue, resulting in a "Tugloo".
A role is played by the combination of triangles, blades and laces.
At this stage, the flowers of the crochet are in the form of a diamond, and its inner angles are filled with the neck.
Each rhubarb is about 62 centimeters.
• Press Pressure:
At this stage, the losus is placed on two "El" cells and the glue is heated up by pressing.
After pressing it, cut it into 20 pieces.
• Laying off:
At this stage, one side of the trimmings is lined up. The thickness of this lining is about one millimeter.
At this point, the back and the wooden lining will rub and rub.
This step involves pasting the sheets with glue or glue on the objects you are looking for.
• Final stage:
The final step of the work includes priming, rubbing, polishing and polishing.
Getting familiar with art
Definition of engraving in the Persian Encyclopedia "The art of decorating the surface of objects in a mosaic-like manner, with small triangles. Khatam's various designs have always been in regular geometric shapes. They plot these geometric shapes by placing small triangles together. Make triangles of wood, metal and bone. The smaller the triangles are, the more interesting the better. In a Khatam design, at least three triangles are used to construct the smallest geometric unit, and for the largest of them, a maximum of four hundred triangles. "This art in the present day before Safavid and in Iran during the period of the Islamic Revolution, the Mongol Ilkhan, has sought to establish a direct relationship between Iran and China. Some other scholars also believe that the work of the Deylam era in Iran and in the city of Shiraz was established and flourished in the Safavid era, because of the government's support of artists and, on the other hand, the establishment of commercial relations with countries far and near The development of Khatam's art helped. In Iran, before the advent of Islam, a kind of clay was prevalent, and its manner of working was to cut from a single-colored cube with a diameter of four millimeters, and to install and nail with different designs on a plate, and this method until several centuries After Islam, it was also commonplace. At present, there is a marble made with this method in the Mosque of Agate Shiraz, which lasted more than a thousand years since its construction.
Tools Required for Studs
Metal clamp, sharp socket, hammer, nail clipper, submerged wire saw, sub-triangle, cavern, metal meter, fixed ruler and ruler, guilloche and gunner.
This art has two stages:
The method of making Khatam: In a piece of wood, cut a bone or metal, in the form of triangles of al-Qaeda, and put them together in such a way that the transverse section of these triangles has regular geometric shapes, then with its thin slices With a special arrangement on a thin sheet of wood and after drying the sheets are installed on the objects needed to decorate.
Wood types are one of the most important materials for the making of crochet which includes jujube, orange, maple, walnut, kikem, Tabrizi, shamshad, ebony, betel and batam. Types of bones are also used to make Khatam due to their strength and white color, which includes camel, horse, cattle bones, as well as natural ivory and elephant ivory. For Khatam's endurance
And care is taken from colored metals used to make up. Silver and aluminum are used for white and rice in yellow.
Care should be taken to obtain the required wood, which has good color and texture and has no knots or cracks. Metals should also have a good alloy
Grind, Tang, Saw, Sohan, Parvaneh, Gonias, Hammer, Gasanbur, Mogharan, Press.
Wood: Beetle wood, Ebony, Jujube, King wood, Free, Contemporary, Orange and Shekshad wood.
Metal: Gold or silver wire, copper, rice, aluminum.
Bone: Bone of the calf and camel or horse, ivory, artificial bones
Green color: This color is made up of a combination of vinegar, copper and vinegar. Sliced bones are placed in a colored solution container and exposed to sunlight for six months. Nowadays, since it's hard to make a camel bone, they use an orange tree instead of a camel's bone and use it to dyed wool to paint it.
Altogether, the surface of one piece is oiled for two reasons: glossing and protecting it against moisture, heat and cold. In the past, Jal oil or sandwich oil (Pine Tree Sap) was used, later using Hawillex oil and now using polyester.
The stages of production of Khatam:
First, they produce varieties of wood and bones in different colors and with their special tools, 30 cm in diameter and 1 to 2.5 mm in diameter, and they are provided with triangles, which after the working of all the adjacent to the desired state and in accordance With the design and in order to complete the plan, wires are required to be wounded in triangles. Various steps are taken to prepare them. Then, in order to create the grate, the first plan is drawn by the master, and these wooden triangles, The bone and metal with the hands of the skilful and masterly artist are put together and sewn together by their hands, and by that They are tightened by the so-called "blade", after a couple of hours the threads are opened and the thread is cut and the four blades are put together and re-bonded with glue. Which is the result of the "Tugloo". The next stage, which is known as the "Screw Flower", is made up of a circular wire, which is arranged in a regular hexagonal fashion, called "candlelight", and is surrounded by each side of the six wires attached to it by a serpent, and with a firm thread And the result is a stellar design, these designs are repeated so that they are made according to the design and then pressurized and pressed. With several steps, the cutting and pressing of very thin layers of wood around the design The first step is to create an entire set of steps from the beginning up to 400 workstations.
Characteristics of a good quality:
The level of work is flat and not vacant.
The uniformity of the colors and materials used in making the khatam
No change in color and shape
Repairs and paints are not specified at the work surface.
The symbols of all the flowers and shapes at the level of work and the angles and adjacent
The precision and engineering of the foundation and the design of the building, all dimensions are matched, are symmetrical and of a size, which, of course, if the chassis is not precise, the best is not on it and it does not affect the entire plan, that is why That a painter should be a carpenter.
Painting and coating the product must be skilful and without any damage and any defect.
The smaller the roles and the smaller the quality and value of the work.
Works of concluding in different periods
Safavid era is the brightest period in Iran. Sanctuary of Imam Zadeh Seyyed Aal Al-Din Hussein son of Imam Musa Bin
Ja'far (AS) in Shiraz and in the mantle of its mantle, which is 400-450 years old, the Mirror Mirror, which dates back to 1124 AH
Kerman and is part of the private collection of late Mohammad Hussein Sonia Khatam. Shrine of the Prophet Moses ibn Ja'far (AS)
Imam Jawad (AS) (in Samarra and also Khatam's box) Narjes Khatun, the dear mother of Hujjatullah (Aj) (in Samarra, built during the reign of Shah Sultan Hussein Safavi with the help of Professor Ja'far, is the masterpieces of Khatam of that era.
During the Qajar period, the entrance to the treasury and the shrine of Hazrat Abdulazim (AS) and at the entrance to the Museum of Ancient Iran.
Generally, three types of designs or roles are used in the art of studding, which are based on the use of wood, bone, shell, and metal in the form of wire. These designs include the role of text, the role of margins and the role of single flowers. Some of these designs are two-way clouds, seven shades, hair leaves, pigeons, almonds, butterflies, solar panels, jars, spears, wires, arbors, oysters and honey. Below are some of these plans. It is necessary to recall that these designs were photographed from the archives of Professor Ayoubi.